New Photonics Technologies for the Information Age
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Included are all areas from everyday life to the most advanced science, e. Just as applications of electronics have expanded dramatically since the first transistor was invented in , the unique applications of photonics continue to emerge. Economically important applications for semiconductor photonic devices include optical data recording, fiber optic telecommunications, laser printing based on xerography , displays, and optical pumping of high-power lasers.
The potential applications of photonics are virtually unlimited and include chemical synthesis, medical diagnostics, on-chip data communication, laser defense, and fusion energy , to name several interesting additional examples. Microphotonics and nanophotonics usually includes photonic crystals and solid state devices. The science of photonics includes investigation of the emission , transmission , amplification , detection, and modulation of light. Photonics commonly uses semiconductor-based light sources, such as light-emitting diodes LEDs , superluminescent diodes , and lasers.
Other light sources include single photon sources , fluorescent lamps , cathode ray tubes CRTs , and plasma screens. Note that while CRTs, plasma screens, and organic light-emitting diode displays generate their own light, liquid crystal displays LCDs like TFT screens require a backlight of either cold cathode fluorescent lamps or, more often today, LEDs. Characteristic for research on semiconductor light sources is the frequent use of III-V semiconductors instead of the classical semiconductors like silicon and germanium. This is due to the special properties of III-V semiconductors that allow for the implementation of light emitting devices.
Examples for material systems used are gallium arsenide GaAs and aluminium gallium arsenide AlGaAs or other compound semiconductors. They are also used in conjunction with silicon to produce hybrid silicon lasers. Light can be transmitted through any transparent medium. Glass fiber or plastic optical fiber can be used to guide the light along a desired path. A very advanced research topic within photonics is the investigation and fabrication of special structures and "materials" with engineered optical properties. These include photonic crystals , photonic crystal fibers and metamaterials.
Optical amplifiers are used to amplify an optical signal. Optical amplifiers used in optical communications are erbium-doped fiber amplifiers , semiconductor optical amplifiers , Raman amplifiers and optical parametric amplifiers. A very advanced research topic on optical amplifiers is the research on quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. Photodetectors detect light. Photodetectors range from very fast photodiodes for communications applications over medium speed charge coupled devices CCDs for digital cameras to very slow solar cells that are used for energy harvesting from sunlight.
There are also many other photodetectors based on thermal, chemical , quantum, photoelectric and other effects. Modulation of a light source is used to encode information on a light source. Modulation can be achieved by the light source directly. One of the simplest examples is to use a flashlight to send Morse code. Another method is to take the light from a light source and modulate it in an external optical modulator.
An additional topic covered by modulation research is the modulation format. On-off keying has been the commonly used modulation format in optical communications. In the last years more advanced modulation formats like phase-shift keying or even orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing have been investigated to counteract effects like dispersion that degrade the quality of the transmitted signal.
Photonics also includes research on photonic systems. This term is often used for optical communication systems. This area of research focuses on the implementation of photonic systems like high speed photonic networks.
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This also includes research on optical regenerators , which improve optical signal quality. Photonic integrated circuits PICs are optically active integrated semiconductor photonic devices which consist of at least two different functional blocks, gain region and a grating based mirror in a laser Wayne H.
Smaller, Faster and Energy Efficient. Benjamin J. Eggleton , The University of Sydney, Australia.
Controlled Slow and Stopped Light in Metamaterials. Holography at a Wavelength of Raman Kashyap ,? Photonic Nanostructures for Sensing Applications. Optical Spectroscopy for Food and Beverages Control. Dissipative Solitons in Optical Fiber Systems. Ferreira , University of Aveiro, Portugal. Silicon Nanophotonic Broadcast Interconnections. Recent Developments in Optical Testing Technology. Moriaki Wakaki, E. Yokoyama and H. Sakata , Tokai University, Japan. Recent Progress in? Richard M. Ari T.
Toke L. Hansen, Karsten Rottwitt, Lasse M. Marco N. Richardson , University of Southampton, UK.
Subwavelength integrated photonics: tailor-made materials for every photonic device
Ultrafast Phenomena in Molecules and Clusters. Nonlinear Optics, Filamentation and Applications. Courvoisier, M. Bhuyan, M. Jacquot, P. Lacourt, L. Furfaro, R. At present, the external circuitry required for a passive-matrix design results in higher power consumption than is needed with an active-matrix display.
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This biasing scheme uses less power than is needed for the passive-matrix design and has a higher refresh rate, and so it is suitable for large displays. Because non-rigid substrates can be used, OLED displays can be more robust than displays that incorporate glass.
That makes OLEDs potentially useful in applications in which they will be subjected to rough handling, such as in cell phones or other consumer electronics. Furthermore, in the case of completely flexible substrates, the displays could be used in applications in which no other display currently can be contemplated, such as being integral with an article of clothing. Baude, C. Gerlach, D. Ender, D. Muyres, M. Haase, D. Vogel, and S. Recent progress in organic electronics: Materials, devices, and processes.
Chemistry of Materials 16 23 Kwon, and T. Nanoscale Interface for Organic Electronics. Hackensack, N. Li, J. Liu, P. Chen, Y. Ha, F.
Ishikawa, H. Chang, C. Zhou, A. Facchetti, D. Janes, and T. Transparent active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays driven by nanowire transistor circuitry. Nano Letters 8 4 However, present OLEDs also have significant disadvantages, including shorter lifetimes 23 , 24 and lower efficiency. Future flexible displays could be extremely thin, light, and inexpensive. Moreover, flexible displays could enable the display market to expand to new applications, including e-paper and large signage.
In recent years, engineers worldwide have been developing the organic materials and manufacturing processes to make flexible displays a reality. Such new materials could be OLEDs, liquid crystals, and electrophoretic particles. Moreover, plastic substrates and printable semiconductors are now available to help to create flexible back planes. Other key technologies are needed for future flexible LCDs or OLEDs, such as the use of stable and heat-resistant organic materials and low-temperature printing. In the next decade, flexible substrates such as thin-film polymers could have a large impact, enabling the possibility of printing reports on e-paper 25 , 26 that is both thin and reusable.
Cell phones could have large displays that could be unfurled. Displays might even be placed on non-flat clothing surfaces. Commercial laboratories are working on flexible displays 27 that can be inch displays and larger. Hofmann, O. Zeika, A. Werner, J. Birnstock, R. Meerheim, G. He, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, and K. High-efficiency p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes with long lifetime.
Journal of the Society for Information Display 13 5 Singapore: Pan Stanford. Reynolds, W. Reeves, M. Banach, T. Brown, K. Chalmers, N. Cousins, M. Etchells, C. Hayton, K. Jacobs, A. Menon, S. Siddique, P. Too, C. Ramsdale, J. Watts, P. Cain, T. Von Werne, J.
Mills, C. Curling, H. Sirringhaus, K. Amundson, and M. A scalable manufacturing process for flexible active-matrix e-paper displays. Journal of the Society for Information Display 13 7 Lee, and M. January San Francisco, Calif. Bellingham, Wash. Kim, and C. Polymers for flexible displays: From material selection to device applications. Progress in Polymer Science 33 6 Although projectors are widely used in schools and for presentations to large audiences, price has been the major factor in their adoption rather than the size, the power consumption, or, to some extent, the brightness of these projectors.
In contrast, size, power consumption, and brightness are the dominant technical specifications that inhibit the incorporation of projectors in handheld devices of various types. All three are candidates for future development for incorporation in handheld devices. Such devices have strict requirements on energy consumption, as well as size. Each of those technologies has advantages and disadvantages, and there is no clear overall winner yet.
Laser scanning also has low power consumption, but laser speckle noise affects image quality.
Three-Dimensional Holographic Displays. A display can sometimes create the illusion of being three-dimensional when a stereoscopic technology is used to produce images. The human visual system, however, experiences a two-dimensional plane, and it is not true three-dimensional images that are being displayed. In contrast, modern holographic displays are able to produce true three-dimensional images or holograms that do not require any. A carousel holding mm slides is comparable in volume to that of the projector.
Similarly, plastic foils are comparable in volume to that of a portable overhead projector. In contrast, today it is possible to carry more than 10, high-resolution images on a tiny flash drive.
Photonics - Wikipedia
This capability is driving the desire to create portable projectors, comparable in size to a cell phone, that are capable of displaying these electronically stored images. In an electroholographic display, the three-dimensional object is converted into a fringe pattern. To do that, a computer graphic stage is used to perform lighting, shading, occlusion, and rendering to two-dimensional images.