Israel: the First Hundred Years (Volume 2: From War to Peace?)

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Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region was challenged in the First Jewish—Roman War , which ended with a Roman victory. The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, and the entire city was destroyed in the war. The contemporary Jewish historian Josephus wrote that the city "was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation.

Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina , replacing the name of Judea. Jews were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death, except for one day each year, during the holiday of Tisha B'Av. Taken together, these measures [] [] [] which also affected Jewish Christians [] essentially "secularized" the city. Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians.

In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire , ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople , maintained control of the city. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule, then back to Roman-Byzantine dominion. In the Siege of Jerusalem of , after 21 days of relentless siege warfare , Jerusalem was captured. Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanids and Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, many at the Mamilla Pool , [] [] and destroyed their monuments and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

This episode has been the subject of much debate between historians. The rest of the city " The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A. After 13 years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf , who lived in Jerusalem from to , the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3, worshipers. Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews cleaned it.

Al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on the Temple Mount in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches. Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control. A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades. After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the capital of their Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The city, which had been virtually emptied, was recolonized by a variegated inflow of Greeks , Bulgarians , Hungarians , Georgians , Armenians , Syrians , Egyptians , Nestorians , Maronites , Jacobite Miaphysites, Copts and others, to block the return of the surviving Muslims and Jews.

The north-eastern quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the Transjordan. In , the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city. The Eastern Christian populace was permitted to stay. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.

In , Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tatars , who decimated the city's Christian population and drove out the Jews. When Nachmanides visited in he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,, of whom were Christians, in the city. In the wider region and until around , many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side, and the crusaders and the Mongols , on the other side.

The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague. In , Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks , who generally remained in control until Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo. The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services were among the first signs of modernization in the city. With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in , foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city.

In , Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem the following month.


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Ottoman rule was reinstated in , but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers. In the s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. In an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,, with 4, to 5, Jews and 6, Muslims.

Every year there were 5, to 6, Russian Christian Pilgrims. Until the s there were no formal orphanages in Jerusalem, as families generally took care of each other. In the Diskin Orphanage was founded in Jerusalem with the arrival of Jewish children orphaned by a Russian pogrom. The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in Ottoman rule. Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the construction of a tramway system—all under concessions granted by the Ottoman authorities—had been signed by the city of Jerusalem and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January Work under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity.

Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in and that he had been deprived of his legal rights. The Mavromatis concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it, covered Jerusalem and other localities e. From to the total population of the city rose from 52, to ,, comprised two-thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs Muslims and Christians.

In Jerusalem, in particular, Arab riots occurred in and in Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city [] [] and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded. As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the UN.

In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a city separated from the Arab state and the Jewish state, Israel took control of the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along with major parts of the Arab territory allotted to the future Arab State ; Jordan took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West Bank.

The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1, residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May. By the time of the armistice that ended active fighting, Israel had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab residential quarters. An estimated minimum of 30, people had become refugees. The war of resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the old walled city lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the line.

A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November Moshe Dayan , commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el-Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem's Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the Armistice Agreements , which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem.

Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital city. After , since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein. While Muslim holy sites were maintained and renovated, [] contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed or desecrated.

Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites, [] and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. The 3,year-old [] Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery was desecrated, with gravestones used to build roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications.

Jordan allowed Arab Palestinian refugees from the war to settle in the vacated Jewish Quarter , which became known as Harat al-Sharaf. In , despite Israeli pleas that Jordan remain neutral during the Six-Day War , Jordan, which had concluded a defense agreement with Egypt on 30 May , attacked Israeli-held West Jerusalem on the war's second day.

On 27 June , three weeks after the war ended, in the reunification of Jerusalem , Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, including the city's Christian and Muslim holy sites, along with some nearby West Bank territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages, incorporating it into the Jerusalem Municipality, [] [] although it carefully avoided using the term annexation.

The steps that were taken [by Israel] relate to the integration of Jerusalem in administrative and municipal areas, and served as a legal basis for the protection of the holy places of Jerusalem. Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of applying for Israeli citizenship. Since , new Jewish residential areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian neighbourhoods have been created. Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored.

Israel left the Temple Mount under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf , but opened the Western Wall to Jewish access. The Moroccan Quarter , which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed [] to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall. The plan was intended to make East Jerusalem more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from Bethlehem to Ramallah.

On 2 October , the Israeli cabinet approved the plan, and seven neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges. They became known as the Ring Neighborhoods. The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. The Israeli Foreign Ministry disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem was a violation of international law. Areas of discord have included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and Palestinian territorial borders.

Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of Mandatory Palestine. From until , West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. On 27 June , the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments. In , Israel ordered the closure of Orient House , home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization , for security reasons.

The building reopened in as a Palestinian guesthouse. The accords banned any official Palestinian presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. Due to its proximity to the city, especially the Temple Mount , Abu Dis , a Palestinian suburb of Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel.

Israel has not incorporated Abu Dis within its security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative Council in the town, and its Jerusalem Affairs Offices are all located in Abu Dis. While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including the entire Old City, as part of the occupied Palestinian territories , neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the territory of Israel or the State of Palestine.

In the war of , the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city. Following the Six-Day War , Israel extended its jurisdiction and administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal borders.

In , Israel approved legislation giving Jerusalem the highest national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political message that Jerusalem will not be divided", and that "all those within the Palestinian and international community who expect the current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's sovereignty over its capital are mistaken and misleading".

The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City [] in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,year-old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque.

A team of experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak in concluded that the city must be divided, since Israel had failed to achieve any of its national aims there. On 5 December , Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion , proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's "eternal" and "sacred" capital, and eight days later specified that only the war had "compelled" the Israeli leadership "to establish the seat of Government in Tel Aviv", while "for the State of Israel there has always been and always will be one capital only — Jerusalem the Eternal", and that after the war, efforts had been ongoing for creating the conditions for "the Knesset The law declared Jerusalem the "complete and united" capital of Israel.

The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution on 20 August , which declared that the Jerusalem Law is "a violation of international law" , is "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Member states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem. Costa Rica and El Salvador followed in President Donald Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as Israel's capital and announced his intention to move the American embassy to Jerusalem, reversing decades of United States policy on the issue.

Due to the general lack of international recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli media outlets use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel. In April , the Russian Foreign Ministry announced it viewed Western Jerusalem as Israel's capital in the context of UN-approved principles which include the status of East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. Many national institutions of Israel are located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Givat Ram in Jerusalem as a part of the Kiryat HaLeom project which is intended to create a large district that will house most government agencies and national cultural institutions.

Some government buildings are located in Kiryat Menachem Begin. However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an open city. The PLO's current position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the pre municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own municipality. A joint development council would be responsible for coordinated development.

BOOK FOURTEENTH.[1]

Some states, such as Russia [] and China , [] recognize the Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski , was elected in In November , Moshe Lion was elected mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek , who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.

The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in moved from the Jerusalem Historical City Hall Building. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom , a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell.

Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape. Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts , tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city.

Mount Herzl , at the western side of the city near the Jerusalem Forest , serves as the national cemetery of Israel. Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.

With summers averaging similar temperatures as the coastline, the maritime influence from the Mediterranean Sea is strong, in particular given that Jerusalem is located on a similar latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east. The highest recorded temperature in Jerusalem was Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city. Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5, year history.

Most population data pre is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the Jerusalem District. Between and , a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews or Muslims were the largest group during this period, and between and estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became an absolute majority of the population. In December , Jerusalem had a population of ,— The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32, people were Jews. In , 2, new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union.

In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In , 16, left Jerusalem and only 10, moved in. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem 4. The average size of Jerusalem's , households is 3. In , the total population grew by 13, 1.

In , Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for is down nine percent. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families. While some Israelis avoid Jerusalem for its relative lack of development and religious and political tensions, the city has attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens, and have the right to vote in municipal elections.

Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents. Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In , the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews. Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab birthrate.

In May , it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab birthrate. Currently, the city's birthrate stands about 4. In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built after the Six-Day War. In , 1, Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of Pisgat Ze'ev and constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov.

In the French Hill neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of the overall population. Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. The opening of high speed rail transit to Tel Aviv in and the New Jerusalem Gateway Business District [] currently under construction is designed to alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population exodus.

ADDITIONAL READING

Jerusalem had a population of , in , of which Jews comprised , Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction. The Temple Mount , the holiest site in Judaism. The al-Aqsa Mosque , where Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to heaven.

Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly years, to Christianity for around years, and to Islam for approximately years. The Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists synagogues, churches, and 73 mosques within the city. Many Jews have " Mizrach " plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer. Christianity reveres Jerusalem for its Old Testament history, and also for its significance in the life of Jesus.

According to the New Testament , Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth [] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem, [] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city. Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam. CE Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.

Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.

The Nobel Peace Prize, 1901-2000

Higher than average percentages are employed in education Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since , East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem. The unemployment rate in Jerusalem 8. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem. Jerusalem has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. About 18 tall buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when there was no clear policy over the matter.

One of them, Holyland Tower 1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a skyscraper by international standards, rising 32 stories. Holyland Tower 2, which has been approved for construction, will reach the same height. A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown Jerusalem. One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a story building, which would make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel.

At the entrance to the city, near the Jerusalem Chords Bridge and the Central Bus Station , twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part of a complex that will also include an open square and an underground train station serving a new express line between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv , and will be connected by bridges and underground tunnels. Eleven of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and one will be a 2,room hotel. The complex is expected to attract many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business hub.

In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist Archives and Israel State Archives. Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel. The companies operate from Jerusalem Central Bus Station.

The Jerusalem Light Rail initiated service in August According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated , people daily, and has 23 stops. Herzl in the south. Another work in progress [] is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which became partially operational in and is expected to be completed in Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route , which continues toward Tel Aviv. Jerusalem is served by Ben Gurion Airport , some 50 kilometres 31 miles northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to Tel Aviv.

The Tel Aviv—Jerusalem railway runs non-stop from Jerusalem—Yitzhak Navon railway station to the airport and began operation in In the past, Jerusalem was also served by the local Atarot Airport. Atarot ceased operation in Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew , Arabic and English.

Founded in , the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top schools in the world. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel. The Jerusalem College of Technology , founded in , combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot , including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir , are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest.

Unlike public schools , many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests. Al-Quds University was established in [] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees. Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance [] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design , [] [] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University.

Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students. A budget of 4. Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance , the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden and a scale-model of the Second Temple. It was built in during the British Mandate. The national cemetery of Israel is located at the city's western edge, near the Jerusalem Forest on Mount Herzl.

The western extension of Mount Herzl is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust museum of Israel is located. Yad Vashem , Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust , houses the world's largest library of Holocaust-related information. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust.

An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. Further, Yad Vashem commemorates the 1. The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra , established in the s, [] has appeared around the world. The Israel Festival , featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays, and street theater has been held annually since , and Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.

Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the state broadcasting center of Israel. God TV , an international Christian television network is also based in the city. The two most popular sports are football soccer and basketball.

Fans include political figures who often attend its games. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Since its opening in , Teddy Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 31, In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem is one of the top teams in the top division. The Jerusalem Marathon , established in , is an international marathon race held annually in Jerusalem in the month of March. In , the Jerusalem Marathon drew 15, runners, including 1, from fifty countries outside Israel. A popular non-competitive sports event is the Jerusalem March , held annually during the Sukkot festival.

Gates 1. Jaffa 2. Zion 3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6. Herod 7. Damascus 8. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Jerusalem disambiguation. It has been suggested that Jerusalem Municipality be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since June For other uses, see Al-Quds disambiguation and Bayt al-Maqdis disambiguation.

City in Israel and Palestine, Israel. From upper left: Jerusalem skyline looking north from St. Coat of arms. City in the Middle East. Further information: Names of Jerusalem. Main article: History of Jerusalem. Further information: Timeline of Jerusalem. This article is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this article , if appropriate. Editing help is available. July Main article: History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages.

Further information: Jerusalem Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine. Abu Dis. Sur Baher. Umm Tuba. Ramat Rahel. Beit Safafa. Beit Jala. Beit Sahur. Ein Karim. Deir Yassin. Main article: Reunification of Jerusalem. Main article: Positions on Jerusalem. Main article: Municipality of Jerusalem. Main article: Demographic history of Jerusalem.

Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem. Main article: Transport in Jerusalem. See also: Beitar Jerusalem F. See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities. Israel portal Palestine portal Judaism portal Christianity portal Islam portal. One of its documents, described as "for discussion purposes only", says that Palestine has a '"vision"' for a future in which "East Jerusalem The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament Knesset are located there. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier , [17] but their legal statuses have not been reverted.

On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule. Basic Law of Palestine. Retrieved: 9 December June Archived from the original PDF on 6 February Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 25 November This paper is for discussion purposes only.

Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. Palestinian vision for Jerusalem Pursuant to our vision , East Jerusalem , as defined by its pre occupation municipal borders, shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel , with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city. August Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem The Palestinian acceptance of the border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise Jerusalem has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine.

Occupied East Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 19 September Global Data Lab. Retrieved 13 May Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 5 March According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem Besieged. Emek Shaveh. Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April Eerdmans Publishing.

Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old City. Martin's Press. Retrieved 11 September Forbes Israel. Retrieved 4 August Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 10 May Harper Paperbacks. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period c.

The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period. In Frederick E.

NYU Press, pp. For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital.

Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration. For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia Leslie J. Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 28 March The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism.

Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation. Isaiah ;; Nehemiah ,18; cf. Joel Daniel The Isaiah section where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah. Paul, Isaiah 40—66 , p. Eerdmans Publishing, p. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian literature, and the epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return.

The Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 10 July The available texts of antiquity indicate that the concept was created by one or more personalities among the Jewish spiritual leadership, and that this occurred no later than the 6th century B. But at the end of the first century C. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam.

Oxford University Press. Columbia University Press. The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center Hoppe, Leslie J. Michael Glazier Books. Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam Cambridge History of Islam.


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  4. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 June In John Phillips ed. Journal of Palestine Studies. Jerusalem, the Torn City. Books on Demand. BBC News. East Jerusalem is regarded as occupied Palestinian territory by the international community, but Israel says it is part of its territory.

    United Nations Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. Retrieved 18 September United Nations. Archived from the original on 19 August Recalling its resolutions In Susan M. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk eds. As we have noted previously the international legal status of Jerusalem is contested and Israel's designation of it as its capital has not been recognized by the international community.

    However its claims of sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect to West Jerusalem than with respect to East Jerusalem. Whither Jerusalem? Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. What, then, is Israel's status in west Jerusalem?

    Israel: the First Hundred Years: Volume II: From War to Peace? - CRC Press Book

    Two main answers have been adduced: a Israel has sovereignty in this area; and b sovereignty lies with the Palestinian people or is suspended. Myers; Astrid B. Beck Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible. Retrieved 19 August Nadav Na'aman, Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament , tr. David E. Green William B. VI, p. Jerusalem, the Holy City. Connecticut: Twenty-Third Publications. Retrieved 17 December Green, vol.

    XV, pp. Eeerdmanns Co. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 26 April The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem after the pagan deity of the city , which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the words for peace shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic. Historic cities of the Islamic world. Wandering Thoughts. Center for Conflict Studies. Archived from the original on 26 April Eerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan , p. Millennium: a Latin reader, A.

    Jerusalem the Holy. New York: Arno Press. Hodder and Stoughton. The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities see here [1] , p. Whisenant p. G Crawford p. Israel Exploration Journal. Berrett p. Retrieved 12 February Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. Emerton, vol. Brill, "Emerton" , p. Emerton, p. The Temple Studies Group. Retrieved 24 January Municipality of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 27 April The New York Times. The New York Times Company.

    Israel: the First Hundred Years: Volume II: From War to Peace?

    Archived from the original on 29 February No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal.

    This heart and soul of the Jewish people engenders the thought that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be 'Jerusalem. The Palestine Yearbook of International Law, — Palestine's claim to Jerusalem is founded on the longtime status of the Palestinian Arabs as the majority population of Palestine. On that basis the Palestinians claim sovereignty over all of Palestine. The Palestinians claim descent from the Canaanites, the earliest recorded inhabitants of Palestine.

    Although political control changed hands many times through history, this population, which was Arabized by the Arab conquest of the seventh century A. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations.

    Conflict in Israel and Palestine: Crash Course World History 223

    Retrieved 22 September Retrieved 29 January Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs website. Retrieved 28 July Eerdmans Publishing, pp. Levine The Ancient Synagogue 2nd. Yale University Press. The case for a synagogue or prayer hall at this site appears to have evaporated.

    Binder; Birger Olsson The ancient synagogue from its origins to A. Leiden: Brill. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Ceramic evidence indicates some occupation of Ophel as early as early as the Chalcolithic period. Remains of a building witness to a permanent settlement on Ophel during the early centuries ca. Killebrew 1 August Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Retrieved 18 January Vaughn, Ann E.

    Killebrew eds. Retrieved 7 December The Jewish Quarter. Archived from the original on 5 October Times of Israel. Boston University. Retrieved 22 January E, , Society of Biblical Literature, , p. Retrieved 24 May Schmidt, eds. Rusten; Philip Comfort; Walter A. Elwell 28 February Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. Andrews University. Archived from the original on 17 September Praeger Publishers. The University of Chicago Press. Jerusalem was besieged and captured by a coalition of hostile neighboring states, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Philistia.

    Its walls were torn down, its buildings razed, the Temple itself burned and destroyed, at least in part, and the great mass of the people scattered Retrieved 12 March Archived from the original on 31 July Jerusalem, Part 1: 1— Walter de Gruyter. Ktav Publishing House. Author of other inspirational books such as Simple Truths and Small Graces, Nerburn unveils the splendor of the mundane, gently prodding us to look closer, deeper at the people, places and things that surround us.

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